b) Type I collagen
Tendons and ligaments predominantly contains collagen, mostly type I collagen, to provide robust mechanical strength. Promotion of the collagen synthesis by fibroblast cells may lead to a promising treatment for an injured tendon or ligament.Bioactive Peptides were shown to increase type I collagen synthesis in tendon cells. Type I collagen is stained in brown. Tendon cells treated with Bioactive Peptides showed deeper brown, indicating increased levels of type I collagen.
c) Type II collagen
Type II collagen is a major protein in joint cartilage, the smooth, white connective tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints. It is believed to contribute most to th etensile behavior of the cartilage tissue
Fibronectin production is an important part of cartilage, tendon, ligament and muscle healing process. In this test, Bioactive Peptides were shown to increase synthesis of fibronectin by human fibroblast.
e) Extracellular matrix (ECM)
In this clinical trial, healthy human volunteers were treated with 50ppm of Bioactive Peptides for 60 days on buttock skin. Biopsies were taken for immunohistochemical assessment of procollagen I, hyaluronic acid and fibronectin. After 60 days of study with the peptides, tissue staining showed a significant increase in the amount of subcutaneous collagen, hyaluronic acid and fibronectin. In other words, Bioactive Peptides stimulate the synthesis of procollagen, hyaluronic acid and fibronectin, which collectively known as ECMin human body.